Manorial monopolies

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Manorial monopolies are a specific set of rights that are derived from that fact that the manorial lord owns the manor, and so controls everything that happens there. So any activity is happening on the lord's land, and so requires his approval.
However, maintaining control offers benefits to the serfs and yeomen as well. The lord can control quality, price, and eliminate many costs associated with overproduction and competition.
What it costs is largely innovation and the meeting of unplanned needs. However, peasants are very conservative and resist innovation. Peasants would rather have stability and sustainability than risk, because failure means starvation. Even innovations on the manorial demesne, are resisted because if the lord makes a mistake, he must make up the difference by making the tenants pay more or even just having less to offer the peasants in aid, charity, or defense.
The most important manorial monopoly is the mill. The lord requires that all the mills produce the same quality at the same price. Operating beyond these requirements is often forbidden because of the way it distorts the market. All of the manorial craftsmen operate as monopolies. Their customers are assigned to them, their prices are set, and their quality is regulated. They have exclusive rights to sell their goods as goods from elsewhere are forbidden and no one can set up shop without a license.
Another important monopoly is the market. Permanent markets are rare, and confined to large cities Small cities might have markets four or five days a week, but with different vendors in the stalls every day. Large towns might have a market reliably once or twice a week. Small towns might have one once a month. Smaller settlements don't necessarily have markets or fairs at all. All settlements are more likely to have them if they lay on trade routes.
The lord also has the right to anything discovered of value on the manor, whether its a vein of ores, animals in his forest, ancient ruins, or buried treasure.

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