[top]Vision and Light

Dwarves and half-orcs have darkvision, but everyone else needs light to see by. See Table: Light Sources and Illumination for the radius that a light source illuminates and how long it lasts.
In an area of bright light, all characters can see clearly. A creature can?t hide in an area of bright light unless it is invisible or has cover.
In an area of shadowy illumination, a character can see dimly. Creatures within this area have concealment relative to that character. A creature in an area of shadowy illumination can make a Hide check to conceal itself.
In areas of darkness, creatures without darkvision are effectively blinded. In addition to the obvious effects, a blinded creature has a 50% miss chance in combat (all opponents have total concealment), loses any Dexterity bonus to AC, takes a ?2 penalty to AC, moves at half speed, and takes a ?4 penalty on Search checks and most Strength and Dexterity-based skill checks.
Characters with low-light vision (elves, gnomes, and half-elves) can see objects twice as far away as the given radius. Double the effective radius of bright light and of shadowy illumination for such characters.
Characters with darkvision (dwarves and half-orcs) can see lit areas normally as well as dark areas within 60 feet. A creature can?t hide within 60 feet of a character with darkvision unless it is invisible or has cover.

[top]Table: Light Sources and Illumination
Candlen/a15 ft.1 hr.
Everburning torch20 ft.40 ft.Permanent
Lamp, common15 ft.30 ft.6 hr./pint
Lantern, bullseye260-ft. cone120-ft. cone6 hr./pint
Lantern, hooded30 ft.60 ft.6 hr./pint
Sunrod30 ft.60 ft.6 hr.
Torch20 ft.40 ft.1 hr.
Continual flame20 ft.40 ft.Permanent
Dancing lights (torches)20 ft. (each)40 ft. (each)1 min.
Daylight60 ft.120 ft.30 min.
Light20 ft.40 ft.10 min.

  1. A candle does not provide bright illumination, only shadowy illumination.
  2. A bullseye lantern illuminates a cone, not a radius.

[top]Breaking and Entering

When attempting to break an object, you have two choices: smash it with a weapon or break it with sheer strength.

[top]Smashing an Object

Smashing a weapon or shield with a slashing or bludgeoning weapon is accomplished by the sunder special attack. Smashing an object is a lot like sundering a weapon or shield, except that your attack roll is opposed by the object?s AC. Generally, you can smash an object only with a bludgeoning or slashing weapon.
[top]Armor Class
Objects are easier to hit than creatures because they usually don?t move, but many are tough enough to shrug off some damage from each blow. An object?s Armor Class is equal to 10 + its size modifier + its Dexterity modifier. An inanimate object has not only a Dexterity of 0 (?5 penalty to AC), but also an additional ?2 penalty to its AC. Furthermore, if you take a full-round action to line up a shot, you get an automatic hit with a melee weapon and a +5 bonus on attack rolls with a ranged weapon.
Each object has hardness?a number that represents how well it resists damage. Whenever an object takes damage, subtract its hardness from the damage. Only damage in excess of its hardness is deducted from the object?s hit points (see Table: Common Armor, Weapon, and Shield Hardness and Hit Points; Table: Substance Hardness and Hit Points; and Table: Object Hardness and Hit Points).
[top]Hit Points
An object?s hit point total depends on what it is made of and how big it is (see Table: Common Armor, Weapon, and Shield Hardness and Hit Points; Table: Substance Hardness and Hit Points; and Table: Object Hardness and Hit Points). When an object?s hit points reach 0, it?s ruined.
Very large objects have separate hit point totals for different sections.
[top]Energy Attacks
Acid and sonic attacks deal damage to most objects just as they do to creatures; roll damage and apply it normally after a successful hit. Electricity and fire attacks deal half damage to most objects; divide the damage dealt by 2 before applying the hardness. Cold attacks deal one-quarter damage to most objects; divide the damage dealt by 4 before applying the hardness.
[top]Ranged Weapon Damage
Objects take half damage from ranged weapons (unless the weapon is a siege engine or something similar). Divide the damage dealt by 2 before applying the object?s hardness.
[top]Ineffective Weapons
Certain weapons just can?t effectively deal damage to certain objects.
Objects are immune to nonlethal damage and to critical hits.
Even animated objects, which are otherwise considered creatures, have these immunities because they are constructs.
[top]Magic Armor, Shields, and Weapons
Each +1 of enhancement bonus adds 2 to the hardness of armor, a weapon, or a shield and +10 to the item?s hit points.
[top]Vulnerability to Certain Attacks
Certain attacks are especially successful against some objects. In such cases, attacks deal double their normal damage and may ignore the object?s hardness.
[top]Damaged Objects
A damaged object remains fully functional until the item?s hit points are reduced to 0, at which point it is destroyed.
Damaged (but not destroyed) objects can be repaired with the Craft skill.
[top]Saving Throws
Nonmagical, unattended items never make saving throws. They are considered to have failed their saving throws, so they always are affected by spells. An item attended by a character (being grasped, touched, or worn) makes saving throws as the character (that is, using the character?s saving throw bonus).
Magic items always get saving throws. A magic item?s Fortitude, Reflex, and Will save bonuses are equal to 2 + one-half its caster level. An attended magic item either makes saving throws as its owner or uses its own saving throw bonus, whichever is better.
[top]Animated Objects
Animated objects count as creatures for purposes of determining their Armor Class (do not treat them as inanimate objects).

[top]Breaking Items

When a character tries to break something with sudden force rather than by dealing damage, use a Strength check (rather than an attack roll and damage roll, as with the sunder special attack) to see whether he or she succeeds. The DC depends more on the construction of the item than on the material.
If an item has lost half or more of its hit points, the DC to break it drops by 2.
Larger and smaller creatures get size bonuses and size penalties on Strength checks to break open doors as follows: Fine ?16, Diminutive ?12, Tiny ?8, Small ?4, Large +4, Huge +8, Gargantuan +12, Colossal +16.
A crowbar or portable ram improves a character?s chance of breaking open a door.

[top]Table: Common Armor, Weapon, and Shield Hardness and Hit Points
Weapon or ShieldHardnessHP1
Light blade102
One-handed blade105
Two-handed blade1010
Light metal-hafted weapon1010
One-handed metal-hafted weapon1020
Light hafted weapon52
One-handed hafted weapon55
Two-handed hafted weapon510
Projectile weapon55
Armorspecial2armor bonus × 5
Light wooden shield57
Heavy wooden shield515
Light steel shield1010
Heavy steel shield1020
Tower shield520

  1. The hp value given is for Medium armor, weapons, and shields. Divide by 2 for each size category of the item smaller than Medium, or multiply it by 2 for each size category larger than Medium.
  2. Varies by material; see Table: Substance Hardness and Hit Points.

[top]Table: Substance Hardness and Hit Points
SubstanceHardnessHit Points
Paper or cloth02/inch of thickness
Rope02/inch of thickness
Glass11/inch of thickness
Ice03/inch of thickness
Leather or hide25/inch of thickness
Wood510/inch of thickness
Stone815/inch of thickness
Iron or steel1030/inch of thickness
Mithral1530/inch of thickness
Adamantine2040/inch of thickness

[top]Table: Size and Armor Class of Objects
SizeAC Modifier

[top]Table: Object Hardness and Hit Points
ObjectHardnessHit PointsBreak DC
Rope (1 inch diam.)0223
Simple wooden door51013
Small chest5117
Good wooden door51518
Treasure chest51523
Strong wooden door52023
Masonry wall (1 ft. thick)89035
Hewn stone (3 ft. thick)854050
Masterwork manacles101028
Iron door (2 in. thick)106028

[top]Table: DCs to Break or Burst Items
Strength Check to:DC
Break down simple door13
Break down good door18
Break down strong door23
Burst rope bonds23
Bend iron bars24
Break down barred door25
Burst chain bonds26
Break down iron door28
ConditionDC Adjustment1
Hold portal+5
Arcane lock+10

  1. If both apply, use the larger number.

System Reference Document
This article is a D20 reference page
The System Reference Document is a comprehensive toolbox consisting of rules, races, classes, feats, skills, various systems, spells, magic items, and monsters compatible with the d20 System version of Dungeons & Dragons and various other roleplaying games from Wizards of the Coast.

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